Be better at 'the business of tourism'

AC 2.2

Health and safety

What’s the big deal with health and safety?

There are laws that the government have passed regarding Health and Safety in the workplace of tourism organisations.

You will need to gain knowledge and understanding of the Health and safety at Work Act 1974 with particular reference to COSSH – Control of Substances Hazardous to Health and RIDDOR – Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995.
Below is a brief summary of Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974.

An Act to make further provision for securing the health, safety and welfare of persons at work, for protecting others against risks to health or safety in connection with the activities of persons at work, for controlling the keeping and use and preventing the unlawful acquisition, possession and use of dangerous substances, and for controlling certain emissions into the atmosphere.

Activity 1

There was a series of major tragedies at football grounds in the past and hooliganism was much more widespread than it is today.
The major tragedies included:

  1. Ibrox Park, Glasgow 1971: 66 fans trampled and crushed to death
  2. Bradford City 1985: 55 people burned to death
  3. Heysel Stadium, Brussels 1986: over 20 people killed in fighting between Liverpool and Juventus fans
  4. Hillsborough, Sheffield 1989: 96 Liverpool fans crushed to death

In pairs or small groups, research each of the above to find out what exactly happened.

Activity 2

One of the many impacts of the tragedies of the 1980s was that major clubs either redeveloped their grounds, as in the case of Old Trafford for example, or moved to new all-seater stadiums.

Working in pairs or small groups, for the clubs listed below, research the names of the new and old stadiums. Share your findings with your group.


The Bradford City fire disaster led to the Popplewell Report in 1986 and the Hillsborough disaster led to the Taylor Report of 1990.

The measures recommended in these reports are now commonplace in modern stadiums, but they were introduced following significant loss of life. The key measures of the reports included:

  • All-seater stadiums in Premiership/Division One from 1995. Up to that time, many famous stadiums contained standing terraces, such as the Kop at Anfield (Liverpool) and the Shed at Stamford Bridge (Chelsea).
  • Reduced capacity in all stadiums with terracing, this severely reduced the threat of over-crowding.
  • Increased safety elements. These included safety barriers, entrances/exits, fire procedures, and clear notices/signage.
  • Removal of perimeter fencing. This had been erected at many grounds to stop pitch invasions.  However, perimeter fencing was a major contributor to the Hillsborough disaster.
  • Removal of flammable (wooden) stands/seats. Wooden stands/seats had been a significant factor in the Bradford City fire.
  • Adequate stewarding and training of stewards.
  • Segregation of supporters. Before the 1990s crowd segregation was less organised than it is today.
  • Closed circuit TV and full monitoring in control box.  CCTV can now be used to investigate disturbances and monitor crowd behaviour.
  • Better steward/control box communications.

Activity 3

Using the information above and your research explain why sports stadiums are safer today than they were in the past.